The Joints Manifestation of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Olena SULIMA, Volodymyr SULYMA
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Abstract


Joint manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are observed in 30% of cases. Their largest share is in total forms of ulcerative colitis (UC) 85-90% and Crohn's disease (CD) involving the colon 30-35% or large and small intestines 60%. The pathogenesis of articular manifestations remains unclear. The importance of increased permeability of the intestinal wall, which is noted in patients with UC and CD, is discussed, as a result of which the components of the membrane wall of bacteria enter the bloodstream. These components act as peptide antigens that can lead to the development of arthritis. Contacting the molecules of histocompatibility complexes and further activating T-lymphocytes, peptides lead to joint inflammation. From the point of view of a rheumatologist, the articular manifestations of IBD are classified as seronegative spondyloarthropathies. During 2013-2020, we studied the frequency of treatment of patients with IBD with extraintestinal articular manifestations for examination to a rheumatologist. We analyzed the ratio of the number of patients with IBD having joints manifestations, which were confirmed and diagnosed by a rheumatologist or consulted in the areas of a gastroenterologist and a surgeon-proctologist. All patients who turned to a rheumatologist with joints manifestations over the years were referred by a gastroenterologist (38%), surgeon-proctologist (14%) and these extraintestinal manifestations of IBD were suspected and confirmed by a rheumatologist (48%). The need for a differentiated approach to the treatment of peripheral arthritis and any axial skeletal lesions is noted, the role of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) drugs, steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), immunosuppressant and biological drugs in the treatment of articular syndrome in IBD is evaluated. It is indicated that patients with IBD having of joints manifestations should be observed jointly by a rheumatologist, gastroenterologist and a proctologist. Regional or granulomatous ileitis is a chronic bowel disease (Crohn's disease) that covers all the layers of the intestinal wall (transmural lesions), and sometimes spreads to the mesentery, regional lymph nodes affecting both the small and large intestines, but most often localized in the terminal section of a thin guts (regional, terminal ileitis). These diseases can be accompanied by damage to the peripheral joints, spine, or joints and spine. The clinical manifestations of the joint syndrome in both processes are the same. The pathogenesis of the intestinal process and joint damage has not been fully established, but it is believed that many mechanisms participate in it, and in particular, toxic, immune, autoimmune. In the blood of patients, antibodies to the cells of the intestinal mucosa, lymphocytotoxin antibodies, circulating immune complexes, in which, possibly, antigenic components of intestinal microbes, etc., are also present. In Crohn's disease, articular manifestations usually occur in childhood and adolescence. The development of peripheral arthritis in these diseases is usually not associated with the carriage of the histocompatibility antigen B27. Ankylosing spondylitis is more common in men than in women (3: 1). This disease usually develops in people who have HLA B27. Articular changes with regional ileitis occur more often in patients with other extraintestinal manifestations of the processes - with ulcers of the oral mucosa, exacerbate erythema nodosum, gangrenous pyoderma.

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References


Sulima, O. & Sulyma, V. (2021). The joints manifestation of inflammatory bowel diseases. The Eurasia Proceedings of Health, Environment and Life Sciences (EPHELS), 3, 13-16.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.55549/ephels.17

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